This is not “urinary neurotransmitter testing.” That model has been discredited.


Serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine found in the urine are newly synthesized by the kidneys and have not been in the peripheral system. The final urinary levels of these centrally acting monoamines are a function of the Organic Cation Transporters Type-2 (OCT-2) of the kidneys. The monoamines newly synthesized by the kidneys are preferentially transported to the peripheral system by the OCT-2 which determines the exact amount transported. What is found in the final urine is waste not transported to the peripheral system. Determining the functional status of the OCT-2 in the kidneys through amino acid load testing simultaneously determines the functional status of the OCT-2 in the synapses of the brain. The OCT-2 in the brain establishes synaptic concentrations of serotonin and dopamine. Listen to the body and it will tell you what it needs to be healthy.

Drugs work by interfering with normal function. This approach establishes normal function.


The three phase model is used to determine OCT-2 functional status in the optimization of serotonin and dopamine transport and nutrient administration. When disease occurs these transporters are encoded to establish optimal serotonin and dopamine concentrations that will return system function to normal. If a nutritional deficiency is present, optimization will not occur.

The problem is relative nutritional deficiencies where nutrients required to meet the needs of the transporters cannot be obtained even when the patient is on an optimal diet. Interpretation of the test results guides amino acid dosing at the exact amounts required for optimal balance, results, and relative nutritional deficiency control.


The nutritional considerations of the diseases and states associated with serotonin and/or catecholamines are taught at these AMA category 1 continuing medical education (CME) conferences. They are based on the peer-reviewed research writings of the presenters.