Presenting peer-reviewed original papers that were co-authored with faculty at the University of Minnesota Medical School in Duluth, MN


The Foundation of this Medical Education

In 1994 all commercial insurance carriers in Duluth, MN was reimbursing our clinic for medical weight loss services at the same rate as management of any other disease or risk factor. Duluth, MN was the only city in the United States where commercial insurance reimbursed for medical weight loss. 

The insight gained during those years was invaluable. With effective weight loss, our practice truly arrived at the point where every day we were stopping more drugs than we were starting. 

People with type II diabetes were most impressive. With adequate weight loss, all insulin and hypoglycemic medicines were no longer needed. We began to have problems with the reuptake inhibitor drugs we were using to induce appetite suppression. They would quit working. Weight gain can be disastrous in a person with diabetes who gets hungry and starts to gain weight. We reasoned that the patients were experiencing a nutritional deficiency induced by weight loss and drugs.

Serotonin and norepinephrine control the appetite center of the brain. We started giving the patients serotonin precursors, dopamine precursors and the cofactors required for synthesis. We simultaneously started a group of 800 patients. We had no idea what the optimal nutrient dosing schedules were. We databased every patient visit.  Within four-months, valid statistical data revealed the optimal starting dose of each nutrient along with optimal dosing increases. 

With appetite suppression once again stable we realized that statistically group weight loss was not compromised in the first 30 days of care by stopping the drugs. So, we stopped the drugs and never looked back. During clinic visits, patients managed with nutrients spontaneously commented on other problems resolving. There were many serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine related disease states that appeared to have a response rate with the nutrients (see disease-like RND ™ page of this website). The truth was these were not disease symptoms resolving it was the resolution of disease-like relative nutritional deficiencies ™ (RND). 

Human beings are complex. The caregiver who has mastered this approach will include these disease-like relative nutritional deficiencies in the differential diagnosis related to over 100 provisional diagnoses. Mastering optimal nutritional results requires training. In 20 years, we have never found one caregiver who became successful without attending a one-day training session first.